Computer Fundamentals Notes For BCA 1st SEM PDF Download[Part-1/4]

Computer Fundamentals notes for BCA 1st SEM pdf in English, computer fundamentals notes pdf, Fundamentals of Computer BCA 1st Sem textbook PDF

What You Will Learn (toc)


It is a man-made electronic machine. Which use 0 or 1 to store data or information.

It takes data, processes it, and produces meaningful information for the users as output.

"A computer accepts data from an input device and processes it into useful information which it displays on its output device."

Works very fast as compare to humans but its capacity is limited.

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Components of Computer:

All computers follow the same basic logical structure and perform the five operations for converting raw input data into useful information to their users:

i) Take Input - the process of entering data & instructions.

ii) Storing Data - save data and instruction for the future when required.

iii) Processing Data - performing arithmetic, and logical operations on data to convert into useful information

iv) Output Information - the process of producing useful information for the users.

v) Control the Workflow - directs the manner and sequence in which all of the above operations are performed.

1) Input Unit -

Input units are used to enter the data into a computer system. It creates the link between user and computer. The Input Units translate the information into computer-readable form.

2) CPU - 

CPU is known as the Brain of the Computer. CPU performs all types of data processing operations. It stores intermediate results, programs & data. Mainly CPU controls the operations of the computer's parts.

* Components of CPU

i) ALU -

a) Arithmetic Section- It performs all the arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

b) Logic Section - It performs logical operations such as comparing, matching, selecting & merging data.

ii) Memory Unit - 

Memory is used to store instructions, data & intermediate results. It sends the information to other units when required. Mainly memory unit is known as Internal,  Main & Primary memory, or RAM (Random Access Memory).

iii) Control Unit - 

It controls the operations of all parts of the computer but does not carry out any actual data processing.

3) Output Unit - 

Output Units are used to get information from a computer system. It creates the link between user and computer. The Output Units translate the computer's data into human-readable form.

Computer Fundamentals notes for BCA 1st SEM pdf in English, computer fundamentals notes pdf, Fundamentals of Computer BCA 1st Sem textbook PDF

Generations of Computers:


The development of computer systems is normally discussed as the development over different generations.

1) First Generation (1942-55)

i) Computer Systems are Entirely electronic.

ii) Magnetic drums are used for memory.

iii) Vacuum tubes are used to store instructions.

iv) These systems can calculate in milliseconds.

v) Takes entire room space for a single system.

vi) These systems consume a large amount of energy. And very expensive to operate and I/O ( input/ output) is very slow.

vii) Constant maintenance is required for these systems. And only can understand low-levels.

Example: ENIAC, IBM650, UNIVAC1, etc.

2) Second Generation (1955-65)

i) Transistors are used at the place of vacuum tubes.

ii) And use Magnetic core as Primary Internal Storage.

iii) In this generation main storage capacity and speed are increased.

iv) And Punched Card or Magnetic Tapes are used in these computer systems.

v) Input/Output speed was fast as compared to the first-generation computer system.

vi) Reduces the size of the entire computer system and these systems generate less heat.

vii) High-Level Programming Languages are used in these systems (COBOL and FORTRAN).

Example: IBM-1401, Honewell 200, CDC 1607, etc.

3) Third Generation (1965-74)

i) These systems replace transistors with IC (Integrated Circuit) Chips. 

ii) And Magnetic Core also uses for primary storage.

iii) Input and Output are more flexible in these systems.

iv) Working speed of these systems is also increased.

v) High-Level Programming Languages are used in these systems.

vi) And Operating Systems are available for Input/Output in these computer systems

vii) Size of the systems was reduced and perform better performance or these systems are reliable for the uses

Example: IBM System/360, NCR 395, Burroughs B6500, etc.

4) Fourth Generation (1974-89)

i) These computer systems use Large Scale IC Chips

ii) Modular designs are available for the users.

iii) In this generation use of microcomputers is increased

iv) Storage capacity and speed of the systems are increased.

v) A greater versatility of Input/Output devices is introduced

vi) These computer systems use RAM for temporary data storage

vii) Microprocessor  and microcomputers cames in this computer generation

Example: IBM PC-XT(microcomputer), AppleII, IBM PC, STAR 1000, etc.

5) Fifth Generation (1989-Present & Beyond)

i) This generation totally based on Artificial Intelligence

v) Come with great speed of I/O devices

iii) Consume less power and generate very less heat. 

ii) Use Ultra-Large-Scale Integration (ULSI) Technology

iv) Speed of this generation computer systems is very fast and accuracy and reliability increases as compare to 4th generation computer systems

vi) Size of these computer systems is very small and these are cheapen than other generation computer systems

vii) Use High-Level Programming Languages Like Python, C#, Java, JavaScript, Kotlin, etc.

Example: Desktop, Laptops, Smartphones, Voice Recognition, Tablet, etc.

Computer Fundamentals notes for BCA 1st SEM pdf in English, computer fundamentals notes pdf, Fundamentals of Computer BCA 1st Sem textbook PDF

Characteristics of Computer

i) Automatic

It can work by itself without human interaction.

We need to instruct a computer using coding.

They cannot start themselves and cannot find any problem solution.

ii) Speed

The speed of computers is very fast as compare to humans.

A computer system can perform any task within seconds.

It can work continuously day and night and it will never tire.

iii) Accuracy

The computer is a very accurate device and computes cannot make errors.

It can perform any calculation with the same accuracy up to last.

iv) Versatility

Is the most powerful feature of a computer.

It Means a computer system has the ability to perform different kinds of tasks at the same time with the same accuracy.

v) Diligence

Unlike, human being a computer never tired, with no lack of concentration and haziness it can perform any task for a long period of time. 

vi) Storage Capacity

Computers are capable of storing an enormous amount of data and instructions. And with the increasing speed of a computer, it can retrieve data within a second.

vii) Power of Remembering

With day-to-day life, the storing capacity of a computer is increasing and it can retrieve any data within a second from the millions of data. 

Computer Fundamentals notes for BCA 1st SEM pdf in English, computer fundamentals notes pdf, Fundamentals of Computer BCA 1st Sem textbook PDF

Classification of Computer

i) Digital Computer

According, to its name these are the computers that are used to represent data in digital form.

Such as letters, numbers, and special symbols. Example: PC, Calculator, Digital Clock, Laptops, etc.

ii) Analog Computer

Analog computer data is represented as physical quantities.

In these computers, data is represented continuously.

These computer systems are used where data is always changeable. Example: Voltmeter, Barometer, Thermometer, etc.

iii) Hybrid Computer

A hybrid computer is the combined feature of digital on analog computers.

It takes input in analog form process it in digital form and then gives the output in the form of analog. 

Example: Scientific Laboratory, Airline Sector, etc. 

iv) Super Computer

These computer systems are very fast, large in size, large storage capacity, as compare to other computer systems.

These computer systems are specially designed to perform a large amount of data in a short time period with full accuracy.

Example: Param, Fugaku, etc.

v) Mainframe Computer

These computer systems are not made for a normal person or normal work.

These computers are mainly used in big organizations, commercial purposes, scientific problems, etc.

vi) Mini Computer

Minicomputers are smaller in size, faster, and less expensive.

But these computers are costly as compare to Personal Computer(PC).

Minicomputers are designed for real-time dedicated multi-user applications.

Example : HP-9000, IBM-17, etc.

vi) Micro Computer

Microcomputers are mainly used for personal work, education, and entertainment.

A normal person can buy a microcomputer easily because of less expensiveness and these computers are easy to use.

Example: Apple MAC, IBM PS/2, etc.


Hardware is the physical parts of the computer which we can see, touch and feel.

These are the main electronic devices that are used to build a computer system.

Example: Monitor, Keyboard, Mouse, etc. 


Software is a set of programs that are used to perform a specific task. It tells to the hardware of the computer system what to do.

Mainly a software process the data into information.

Example : Paint, MS-Word, Photoshop, etc. 

And there are two types of software are i) System Software, ii) Application Software.


Firmware is the combination of hardware and software.

A Firmware is an instruction program on the hardware it tells to the hardware how to communicate with software.

Memory and Its Types

Memory is one of the fundamental components of all computer systems.  That is used to store data of information for the future.

There are basically three types of memory: i) Primary Memory, ii)Secondary or Auxillary Memory, and Cache Memory.

Primary Memory

Primary memory in the computer is known as main memory. This memory is a volatile type of memory.

And it can store data and instruction only temporarily. Example: RAM (Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory).

Secondary Memory

In the computer system, it is known as, External or Auxiliary Memory.

It is a non-volatile type of memory. This means it can store data permanently or in the case of power-off.

Example: Hard Disk, Floppy Disk, CD, DVD, etc. 

Sequential Access

Data and information can be read or store in a sequential form.

In this type of memory data or information are processed in order means one data or information after the other.

Magnetic Disk

Data is store in magnetize medium.

Data can be access one or more time from this memory.

This type of memory stores data in form of non-volatile memory.

Optical Disk

Data is store in digital form(0 or 1).

This type of memory uses optical technology and techniques to read and write data.

In this memory, data is sequentially accessed. Laser beam technology is use for data reading and writing.

Flash Memory

It is non-volatile memory. And use to transfer data between PC and Digital Devices.

This type of memory has the ability to be reprogrammed and electrically erase.

It is found in USB Flash Drives, MP3 Players, etc.

Programming Language

Use to communication with the computer system.

Programming languages are the set of Keywords, symbols, and syntax rules.

Every Programming Languages have their own syntax and specific rules.

Types of Programming Languages

i) Low-Level Language

Which is called Machine code or Object code and is directly understood by the CPU. And very difficult to understand for humans. 

ii) High-Level Language

These programming languages are machine-independent and user translator. These languages are closer to humans and called as Source Code.


The assemble translates the source program in assembly language in machine code.


The compiler translates user code to an object code. It read the entire source code, collect and reorganize the errors. It translates the entire program.


An interpreter translates individual lines and instructions and then executes the translated object code without saving it. It gives the result of the executed program.

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