What is Electronic Mail in Computer

E-Mail  In Computer

Email is a short form for electronic mail. It is a way to use the Internet to deliver messages from one computer to another. It is mostly utilized in document interactions, technical communication, business, and education. It makes it possible to communicate with people anywhere in the world without disturbing them. Ray Tomlinson sent himself a test email in 1971 that contained text.

What is Electronic Mail in Computer

It is data that is electronically transferred over a network between several individuals. A sender and receiver are involved.

Email is one of the most widely used digital communication tools available today. Due to its widespread use and security flaws, cyberattacks such as phishing, domain spoofing, and business email compromise (BEC) find it to be a convenient target.

Components of E-Mail in Computer

An individual email is made up of three primary components:

  • The SMTP envelope
  • The header 
  • The body

SMTP envelope 

SMTP stands for  Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The information exchanged between servers during the email delivery process is known as the SMTP "envelope." It is made up of the email addresses of the sender and the recipient.

Just like a mail carrier uses the address on an envelope to deliver a letter to the right place, this envelope data instructs the mail server where to send the message. This envelope is thrown away during email delivery and is changed each time the email is moved to a new server.


The email header, like the SMTP envelope, contains important details about the sender and recipient. The information in the SMTP envelope and the header typically match, although it's not always the case.

For example, by utilizing a real email address in the email header, a hacker can make it appear as though the message is from someone else. The recipient of an email might not be aware that the communication is harmful because they only see the email's header and body and not its envelope contents.

A few optional fields that enable the recipient to reply, forward, categorize, archive, or delete the email may also be present in the header. Additional header fields consist of the following:

  • Date
  • From
  • To
  • Subject 
  • Carbon Copy
  • Blind Carbon Copy


The email's send date can be found in the "Date" field. This header field must be filled in.


The email address of the sender is contained in the 'From' field. This field may also display the display name if the email address is linked to one. Additionally, this header field is required. 


The recipient's email address is found in the "To" field. This field may also display the display name if the email address is linked to one.


Any background information the sender wishes to add to the message is contained in the "Subject" box. It appears above the email content as a distinct line.

Carbon Copy

The sender can forward a copy of the email to extra recipients by using the carbon copy field. The email addresses indicated in the carbon copy field are visible to the recipients indicated in the "To" field. 

Blind Carbon Copy

The sender can forward a copy of the email to other recipients by using the blind carbon copy option. The email addresses indicated in the Blind carbon copy field are hidden from view by the recipients indicated in the "To" field.


Body Any content the sender wants to include in the email body can be included, as long as it doesn't go over the email client's size limitations. This content can include text, pictures, links, videos, and/or other file attachments. As an alternative, you can send an email with nothing in the body field.

Advantages of Email in computer

The advantages of email services are as follows: 

Simple and Quick

Writing an email is one of the quickest and easiest ways to communicate. With only one mouse click, we can send an email in under a minute. It can be swapped fast and has a minimal lag time.


Sending and receiving information via email is a dependable and safe technique. The ability to quickly remove harmful content makes the spam feature more secure.

Mass Sending

Email makes it simple to send a message to a large number of recipients at once. If a business wishes to notify all of its employees about upcoming holidays, it is simple to do so via email. With Microsoft Word, the mail merge tool offers additional ways to deliver messages to a large number of recipients by simply exchanging pertinent data.

Multimedia E-mail

Email allows you to send a variety of files, including documents, photos, audio files, videos, and multimedia. The different file formats, either in their original or compressed formats, are simple to attach.

Disadvantages of Email in Computer

Malicious Use

With simply their email address, anyone can send a message. If someone has an email address, they can send an email as an anonymous user or without authorization. The primary drawback of email is its attachment feature, which allows hackers to distribute viruses via emails when the spam filter is not able to identify questionable ones. 


These days, email systems enhance this function. To enhance this service, occasionally some crucial emails are silently moved to spam.


Email correspondence requires more time to respond to than other messaging apps like Telegram, WhatsApp, etc. Email is useful for business discussions, but not for chit-chat.

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