Semantic Processing and Its Approaches in Artificial Intelligence

Semantic Processing in Artificial Intelligence

A key element of natural language processing (NLP), which focuses on understanding the links, interpretations, and meanings of words, phrases, and sentences in a particular context, is semantic analysis. It explores the intended meaning of a statement rather than only examining its syntax, structure, and grammar. It is an essential part of Natural Language Processing (NLP) and the source of ideas for machine learning applications such as chatbots and search engines. 

Businesses may automatically extract valuable information from unstructured data, such as emails, support requests, and customer comments, with the help of tools based on semantic analysis. We'll discuss how it works below.

For Example: Despite being true, the statement "There are colorless red ideas" would be rejected since the colors red and colorless are illogical.

Semantic Processing includes:

  • handling of data. 
  • defining the attributes, specifications, and features of processed data 
  • Data visualization 
  • Grammar definition for data analysis 
  • Evaluating semantic tiers in processed information 
  • utilizing linguistic formalism to perform semantic analysis

Semantic Processing Components in Artificial Intelligence

 To process natural language, the following essential components of semantic analysis are necessary:


This is the relationship between a particular lexical entity and a more general verbal entity known as a hyponym. As example, the hyponyms of color, or their hypernym, are red, blue, and green.


Meronomy is the term for word and text arrangement that designates a little part of anything. Apples, for example, are a species of apple tree. 


Polysemy is the term used to describe a word that has multiple meanings. It is, nevertheless, covered by a single entry. The word "dish," for example, is a noun. The term "dishes" in "arrange the dishes on the shelf" refers to a certain type of plate.


Synonyms are words with comparable meanings. One synonym for abstract (noun) is summary–synopsis. Antonyms are words that have opposing meanings of each other. The antonyms of "cold," for example, are "warm" and "hot."


Homonyms are words that have the same pronunciation and spelling but a completely distinct meaning. Bark cats and grapes are two examples.

Approaches to Semantic Processing 

The following are the approaches to semantic analysis:

  • Syntax-driven semantic analysis approach
  • Lexical semantic approach
  • Compositional semantic approach
Semantic Processing and Its Approaches in Artificial Intelligence

Syntax-driven semantic approach

Semantic analysis is a branch of natural language processing (NLP) that studies how natural language is meant to be understood. To us, comprehending natural language may appear like a simple task.

This is the basic method of semantic analysis but with a limited scope. This method uses the language and dictionary knowledge to assign semantic representation to input. The fundamental tenet of this approach is that a sentence's meaning may be inferred from the meaning of each of its constituent parts. 

This concept is ineffective because, by it, the primary factor in determining the meaning of a sentence is its basic word meaning; yet, it ignores the arrangement of the words and their relationships within the sentence.

However, machine interpretation of human language is a challenging issue because of the huge amount of detail and subjectivity involved. Semantic Analysis of Natural Language captures the meaning of the text while accounting for grammatical roles, context, and logical sentence structure.

Lexical Semantic Approach

One method in natural language processing for determining a text's sentiment is called lexicon-based sentiment analysis. To categorize the words and identify sentiment, it makes use of lists of expressions and words associated with various emotions.

Lexical Semantic Analysis focuses on interpreting each word in the text separately. In simple terms, it means retrieving the definition that a word in the text is assigned to.

Using lexical semantic orientation, this method determines the sentiment orientations of a whole document or collection of sentences. Positive, negative, or neutral semantic orientations are all possible. One can generate a dictionary of lexicons automatically or manually. A large number of researchers utilize the WorldNet dictionary.

Compositional Semantic Approach

According to the compositional semantic method, an expression's meaning can be determined from the meaning of its individual components. In this case, the target knowledge structures that are generated are usually logical expressions, such as the FOPL formula.

Understanding the meaning of every word in the text is necessary, yet it is insufficient to fully understand the text's meaning in its entirety.

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