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Object Oriented Programming Fundamental Concepts with Examples

Object-Oriented Programming (OOPs) refers to programming languages that use objects, as the name suggests. Object-oriented programming aims to implement real-world entities such as inheritance, hiding, polymorphism, and so on in programming. The basic goal of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) is to connect the data and the functions that operate on them such that no other section of the code may access the data except that function. And OOP concepts are the most fundamental concepts in programming like Java, JavaScript, Python, etc.

Object Oriented Programming Fundamental Concepts with Examples

OOPs Concepts with Examples

  • Class
  • Object
  • Inheritance
  • Abstraction
  • Polymorphism
  • Encapsulation

1. Class

A class is the collection of all the related objects. It is a user-defined data type. And a class consists of member functions and data members ,which can be accessed by created an instance of that class. You can also consider class as a general category which contains all the related objects inside it. And a class is like a blueprint for an object.

For Example: Consider the class of chair. There can be many chars with different brands but all of them will share some common properties like all of the have 4 legs, colors, etc. So in this Chair is class and legs, colors are the properties.


2. Object

In Object-Oriented Programming object is a basic unit which represents the real-world entities. An Object is an instance of a class. And an object has an state, identity, attributes and behavior. In OOP when a class is defined then no memory is allocated but when an object is created then the memory is allocated.

For Example: A "Cow" is a real-world object, which have some characteristics like 4 legs, color, eat, etc. 


3. Inheritance

Inheritance is an essential part of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Inheritance refers to a class's capability to inherit characteristics and features from one class to another class. In this a class which inherit the properties from another class, is called child class, and from which class the properties are inherited, is called parent class.

For Example: A "Animal" class can have two child classes: i) Dog, ii) Cat. Both class can inherit the "eating" behavior from the Animal class.


4. Abstraction

Abstraction is also one of the most important and an essential part of Object-Oriented Programming. In OOP, Abstraction refers to hiding the complexity from the user and showing only essential information about the data outside the world. 

For Example: Consider a real-world example of a man driving a car, So in this the man only know how to increase car's speed, how to apply breaks to stop the card but he does not know how accelerator increase car speed and he does not know about the inner mechanism of the car, etc. So this what abstraction is.


5. Polymorphism

In Object-Oriented Programming, Polymorphism means many forms with the same name. We can also say that calling a message or thing and displaying it in more than one form., it provides different forms.

For Example: A "Man" have different behavior in different situations like he is a father, an employee, a son, a husband at the same time. This is called polymorphism.


6. Encapsulation

Encapsulation means wrapping up of data into a single unit. Encapsulation is the mechanism which binds together code and the data it manipulates. Encapsulation means that a class's variables or data are hidden from other classes and can only be accessible through any member function of the class in which they are defined.

For Example: Drug Capsules combine multiple medications into a single unit that protects them from the outside environment.

Why do we need Object Oriented Programming

  • We use OOP for code reusability which make the development and maintenance of projects more effortless.
  • Using Object-Oriented Programming we can solve real-world problems.
  • OOP principles helps us to manage the complexity of the program and allow for the addition or modifications of new features with minimal disruption to existing code.
  • OPPs simplifies the complexity of the code which make it more intuitive, and help developers to better understand and manage large systems.
  • Object-oriented programming makes it easier to understand how a program works by combining data and methods into a single bundle known as an "object".

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