# What is State Space Problem in AI

### State Space

A mathematical description of a problem that identifies each possible state the problem could be in is called a state space. Additionally, a state space is used in search algorithms to represent the problem's current state and its initial and target states. Also, we use a collection of variables to represent each state in the state space.

### State Space Problem Characteristics in AI

• Exhaustiveness: To identify a solution, state space search looks into every state that a problem could be in.
• Completeness: State-space search will locate a solution if one exists.
• Optimality: An ideal solution is found by sifting through a state space.
• Uninformed and Informed Search: In artificial intelligence, state space search is categorized as uninformed if it offers further details about the issue.

### Example of State Space Search in AI

The 8-puzzle is a well-known sliding puzzle consisting of a 3x3 grid with eight numbered tiles and one empty area. The goal is to use gal moves to rearrange the tiles from a starting position to a target arrangement.

This is a detailed breakdown of the 8-puzzle:

#### Step 1: Starting Point Situation

Eight numbered tiles (typically numbered 1 through 8) and one empty spot are set randomly within a 3x3 matrix to begin the 8-puzzle. A starting state might appear like this, for instance:

Here, a blank square stands in for the empty space.

#### Step 2: Objective Condition Reaching a predetermined objective state,

where the tiles are usually organized in numerical order, is the aim. Usually, the blank area is located in the lower-right corner. The desired state appears as follows:

#### Step 3: Taking Legal Action

Only nearby tiles (either horizontally or vertically, not diagonally) may be moved into the empty area. This implies that you are always able to move a nearby tile into the vacant area.

#### Step 4: Goal

The aim is to identify a set of movements that converts the starting configuration into the desired configuration. Every step signifies a change in status.

#### Step 5: Search for State Space

A* and Breadth-First Search are two examples of state space search algorithms that are used to methodically investigate potential states and identify the best answer. These algorithms rank states according to specified criteria, like the distance to the target state, and evaluate them.

#### Step 6: Resolution

The answer consists of a sequence of actions (states) that, when applied to the initial configuration, lead to the goal configuration. For instance, a sequence of moves might look like this:

### Issues in the design of the search problem

The mark of human intelligence is design. For AI, it was a more challenging and significant task. Early concepts for automated reasoning and problem-solving were shaped by designs.

The following issues are observed in the design of the search problem.

• State representation and determining the connections between states.
• Choose your forward and backward motions carefully to find the best route to your destination.
• Choice of rules.

### Production System

• A production system is an artificial intelligence system designed to solve any kind of problem.
• AI programs are organized with the aid of production systems, making it easier to describe, carry out, and execute the search process.
• Production systems are used in problem-solving applications that need to do several searches.

### Components of the Production System

• Global Database
• A list of guidelines for production
• A control strategy

#### Global Database

The main database has all the data required to do a task successfully. It is further divided into two categories: temporary and permanent. While the permanent section contains information about the fixed activities, the temporary half simply contains information related to the current circumstance.

#### A list of guidelines for production

A collection of guidelines for the global database. Every rule has a precondition and a postcondition that are either satisfied or not by the global database. For instance, the production rule is successfully executed if the global database satisfies a criterion.

#### System of Control

It is up to a control system to make the ultimate decision about which production rule to apply. When a termination condition is met, the control system ends processing or computation.

### Features of the Production System

The following are the features of  the Production System:

• It offers a useful example of how to solve simple human problems.
• It makes sure that knowledge is represented consistently.
• It offers an excellent instrument for organizing AI programs.
• Because individual rules can be added, withdrawn, or modified independently, production systems are very modular.
• The expression of the production rules is organic.

### Example of Production System in AI

• Robotics frequently uses production systems because of their ability to manage complicated tasks requiring a variety of operations. A robot might have to.

#### For example

Pick up an object, carry it to a different place, and then set it down. The robot might be programmed to perform all of these tasks using a production system.

• Expert systems and other artificial intelligence applications use production systems as well.
• Expert systems are computer programs that, like people, make judgments based on a set of rules. An expert system in medicine

#### For example

May be used to determine a patient's sickness.